Doctor of History, Professor, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Laureate of the State Award of the USSR and the North-Ossetian ASSR, deserved scientist of the GSSR, North Ossetian ASSR and of the Republic of South Ossetia, Laureate of the Award after Kosta Khetagurov and Arnold Chikobava, Honorary Member of the Asiatic society (London), correspondent-member of the Finno-Ugric society (Helsinki), great scientist of Osset and Iranian languages, Cavalier of two Orders of the Red Flag and of the Order “For deserts before Native land” of the IV degree.
The essence of genocide in the Soviet encyclopedia dictionary (1989) is defined as follows:
“One of the gravest crimes against humanity, extermination of separate groups of population on racial, national, ethnic or religious attributes and deliberate creation of living conditions intended for full or partial extermination of these groups, as well as measures on preventing from procreation in that milieu. Such criminals were committed by in mass scale by Hitlerites especially against Slavic and Jewish population. The International convention “About averting the crime of genocide and punishing for it” (1948) establishes international criminal responsibility for people guilty in committing genocide”.
This gravest criminal case has been being done with impunity for several years already by the authorities of the Christian Georgian republic against one of the national minorities, against Christian population of Ossetia. Monstrous cruelty of the planned extermination of the population of South Ossetia, plundering and ravaging houses, social and cultural institutions shocked everyone who heard about it from the eye-witnesses and TV programs. Neither Hilter’s criminals, nor Saddam Hussein’s brutalities in Kuwait and Kurdistan are comparable with them. Provincial center the town of Tskhinval in winter is subjected to blockade and deprived of all sources of life support: electricity, warmness, food, even water according to the classical practice of genocide: “deliberate creation of living conditions intended for full extermination of these groups” (see above). New born children freeze to death in the maternity hospital. Old people die in the Retirement home… People are subjected to all kinds of tortures and outrages. Here are paper reports taken on the off-chance from the correspondence. “110 villages are devastated! Capturing of hostages and their torturing became a usual thing. In the first week of April (1991) Tskhinval hospital received teenagers with fire wounds and cruelly beaten woman of 75 years. In one of the yards there’s a woman who is constantly crying and shouting having gone mad from tensity of the last months”. (“Moscow news”, 14 April, 1991). “Several hundreds of armed bandits invaded a village. Houses of peasants began to blaze. Murders and tortures of innocent old women and men. It were beaten till loosing consciousness and then shot a 65-year-old Sergey Hugaev, 60-year-old Nina Bestaeva, 70-year-old Germanoz Kisiev. 90-year-old Tekle Kazieva was cut off fingers on her left hand, bandits couldn’t take off her golden wedding ring” (“Izvestia”, 5 April 1991).
Violence from the one side causes responsible activities from the other. But objective observers can notice difference. A journalist visited the morgue in Gori where were killed Ossets and Georgians. She paid attention on the fact that none of the Georgian corpses was mutilated, all Osset corpses were…
The happening in South Ossetia is understood as a nightmare. You see it with your own eyes but you don’t want to believe it. After all we speak about two people who live in friendship and accordance for centuries. Governing dynasties of both nations were closely connected between each other with relative and allied bonds. The Georgian King Bagrat IV was married on an Osset Princess Borena. The shining star of the Georgian history was Osset on her mother. Osset prince David Soslan became her husband and like prince consort put down good pages in the history of Georgia (G. Togoshvili, Soslan-David, Vladikavkaz, 1990).
Famous Georgian poet Grigol Orbeliani (1804-1883) in one of his poems narrates about army which gathered under the flag of Queen Tamara which consisted from all tribes of Georgia, and he names the tribes: Kahetians, Tushininas, Pshavs, Hevsurs, Ossets…
For Orbeliani Ossets are not foreign people but one of the tribes of Georgia. And this is historical true. When it needed to defend Georgia from enemies Ossets many times fought together with Georgian brothers.
It was in the past. What happened now? I may explain it only by a temporary aberration, paroxysm of the disease which Englishmen call “moral insanity”.
Where the Ossetian side is not right
One of the peculiarities of the conflict in South Ossetia is that there is no doubts who is the aggressor and who is the victim. Everything is seen with an unarmed glance. It were not Osset “guerillas” who invaded Tbilisi and made massacre but the Georgians invaded Tskhinval. It were not Osset extremists who did violence to the monument of Rustaveli, but Georgian ones to Kosta Khetagurov. Not Osset authorities starved the population of Tbilisi but Georgians starved the people of Tskhinval. The excesses of Osset “guerillas” were just a response to the excesses of Georgian ones.
But I wouldn’t like to be overflowed with a wave of emotions, wave of protest and indignation. I’d like to show objectiveness and peer if there were any hasty insufficiently considered actions which provoked and sharpened the confrontation. And I must recognize that they had place. I mean proclaiming the independence with orientation exceptionally on Moscow with the perspective of joining South and North Ossetia. Bent of south Ossets for their northern co-tribes is understood. But in the geo-political aspect it is mistaken. The main Caucasus spire – natural border between Georgia and Ossetia and every trial to wash it out will result in a state of permanent conflict between Ossets and Georgians.
Two years ago the editors of the radio “Svoboda” asked me to have a speech on the topic of the situation in South Ossetia. I’ll let myself to give extracts from that speech.
International conflict in South Ossetia is a tragic mistake. It is time to come to the senses to return the relation between two peoples in the way of traditional friendship. First of all with this aim it is necessary to finish with the talks about separating of South Ossetia from Georgia. None of the Georgian governments will agree with it and will be right since it’ll mean violation of the territorial integrity of Georgia. I’ll give an example for comparison. There is a national okrug of Basques on the south-west of France. These Basques have full cultural autonomy, save their language, have their own schools, keep in touch with their brothers on the Iberian Peninsula. But if they wished together with their territory to join to Spain, France would have never agreed as it would be a violation of territorial integrity of the state. The Iberian spire is the only border between France and Spain and it stays unchangeable. The same matter is with the border between South and North Ossetia, Russia and Georgia. Those who want peace between south Ossets and Georgians must reject this idea of unifying South Ossetia to the North. Those who want peace between Georgia and Russia must reject it either. This is the reality. Some of my Georgian friends expressed their satisfaction by my speech over the radio “Svoboda” and thought that there was full possibility to find mutually acceptable decision on all moot points at the round table. Unfortunately the regime that had set by this time in Georgia is less of all disposed to peaceful dialogue.
From tribalism to ethnocracy
When the republics which were in the Soviet empire received the desired sovereignty one and the same tendency defined in all of them where in greater extent where in smaller: their leaders laying themselves out for adeptness to democracy in practice inclined to dictatorial habits. As it is in one anecdote: -What’s your attitude to democratic regime? –Like to my wife. I appreciate her, I respect her but I long for another woman. Another woman in this case is dictatorship.
People’s Deputy of the USSR N. Blohin in short but with surprising exactness characterized one of the ugliest variants of the mentioned phenomena. “Instead of democracy we observe in separate regions the process of settling ethnocratic half-fascist regimes shamelessly trampling all international acts about human rights. Obvious example to it – tragedies in Dubossari and South Ossetia”.
Academician T. Zaslavskaja wrote: “Widening of publicity, human rights and freedoms born not only democratic groups, but chauvinistic, nationalistic and even fascist groups. Their organizers claim people to violence and practically implement it… In the basis of these events lies law level of political culture and moral state, absence of long-term democratic traditions in the country, non-organized public opinion”.
With usual directness diagnosed the late A.D. Saharov: “Georgia is seized with a nationalistic psychosis and behaves like a small empire towards national minorities”.
Legal nihilism in some republics which received sovereignty is direct continuation of the Lenin-Satlin-Brejnev’s nihilism. 70 years of totalitarian state boorishness is fearful school and years will require to overcome this doom heritage. Georgian people aren’t a success yet.
Ethnocracy. What is this? We know what democracy is. It is the rule of people. “Ethnocracy” is an unused term. But unfortunately it is the reality of our “reorganization” epoch. In Greek “ethnos” means “a tribe” and “krateo” – “to rule”. We speak about if any nation proclaims itself a ruling one, if it confers the right to press, suppress and exterminate all national minorities on “its” territory. This nationality awards to itself unique attributes, extreme antiquity, brilliant history and of course racial superiority over other peoples. Leaders of the chauvinistic groups swell up so as to seem larger and more considerable. Megalomania is always comic. Provincial one is especially comic.
“The most interesting part begins when “a nationality tries to prove its right on other territories which allegedly belonged to it in the past, forgetting that the whole history of the humanity is a constant train of migrations, divisions and unifications of people, that there is no ethnos in the world whose formation is not the result of different kind of migrations and assimilations” (A. Osipov, “Svobodnoe Slovo”, July, 1989). Of course a nation may not consist only of unbridled chauvinists. This psychosis strikes only definite groups. What groups? The answer to this question was given by S. Johnson: “chauvinism is the last shelter of scoundrels”. Unfortunately owing to their impetuous aggression these groups manage to terror the main sensible part of the nation, accusing it in anti-patriotism and treason, and illegally implement their dirty deed.
The roots of the ethnocratic psychology lead to the primitive society. In struggle with different societies those who were more numerous and stronger longed for conquering, suppressing and even physical exterminating of the weaker ones. At that a need to heat up the belief in their own superiority appeared by them. This need received various expressions in the language, legends, myths. Chukchi men call themselves “Luoravetlans” and the Hegidals – “Eklanbieinon”. Both these names mean “true people”. Hence other people are not true.
Till recently – before colonizing – Africa was in a state of permanent war between two tribal groups and those who were weaker were subjected to full extermination. This “order” received the name of “tribalism” (from French “tribale” and English “tribal”).
It is known that the ethnographic map of Africa earlier had much more colors than now. It became more gray and monotonous in the result of the fact that small tribes and tribal groups were fully exterminated. The last knight of tribalism was not unknown “emperor” Bocassa. He was sure of his messianic role and tirelessly fought for his Fuhrerism eating (in a literal sense) their opponents. But he had no luck. Apparently the time is another. In short he got into prison for cannibalism. Valuable warning for all cannibals…
“Hosts” and “guests”
Long before international relations in South Ossetia had begun to sharpen, before in the streets of Tskhinval shots had roared in Georgian Mass Media, in paper and magazine articles, in statements of responsible officials the concept of “hosts” and “guests” became to be intensively spread. The sense of this concept is simple. Georgians in the republic are “hosts” and the others – “guests”. The conclusion suggests itself. The guest stayed for some time and it’s enough. It’s high time to leave: it’s high time to make sail. Who are “hosts” in America? Of course, Indians. And who are the “guests”? All the others. Hence all non-Indians must move from America in various directions: England, Ireland, Germany, Spain, Africa etc. We may imagine what a great migration could be on Earth if this “concept” would be implemented in a global scale and all peoples would begin to search their historic native land. At the end all would gather in Africa, since anthropologists confirm that Africa is the native land of the whole humanity…
Leader of the Georgian neo-fascists Gamsahurdia once visited Kahetia. Peering at the demographic situation in that region he was outraged. Some “Lakcs”, some “Tatars” intruded on this “fully Georgian” land. “Lacks” are Dagestans, “Tatars” – Azerbaidjanians. They must be turned out. When all “guests” are driven away the desired territorial Ethnocracy will come.
I wonder when signing documents about cooperation with the representatives of Georgia if the Minister of Culture Mr. Bul-bul Ogli knew that he had business with the authorities which considered “Tatars” – Azerbaidjanians as people of the worst sort, whose presence on the territory of Georgia just profaned that saint land. In the interview to the London paper “The Times” Mr. Gamsahurdia said that Armenians and Azerbaidjanians form together 20% of the population of Georgia – this is a threat to the Georgian nation, the majority of them are enemies (“Sovetskaja Kultura”, 16 March, 1991).
Mr. Gamsahurdia came to South Ossetia more exactly to the Georgian villages of this district. For what? To claim Ossets and Georgians to peace? No, his only aim was to enkindle by Georgians enmity towards Ossets. That’s why he likes to give interviews to foreign newspapers. In the interview to one Holland paper he called Ossets “criminals” (he calls “criminals” everyone whom he doesn’t like). He stated outraging that Ossets are “uneducated wild people”. What one may say? The man lost control upon his tongue. For my long life I don’t remember a man who could allow himself to call any of the Soviet Union’s nations a wild one. The only undoubted savage which may be found in this statement is Gamsahurdia himself. It turns out that one may be a son of a writer, receive prefect education but at the same time stay a Barbarian deprived of any moral culture able to offend by boorish conduct a whole nation.
The great master on human souls Dostoevsky in his “Notes form the dead volume” wrote: “Sometimes education lives in harmony with Barbarism, cynicism and you begin to fill disgust”. Exactly you feel disgust.
Later on having come to his senses Mr. Gamsahurdia understood that he went too far and he became to assure that he hadn’t meant Osset people, only “extremists”. But it’s useless to shift. It is clearly said in the interview “people”. Besides among those whom he calls “extremists” there not less educated people than among Georgian brutal pseudo-militiamen which behave in South Ossetia like Guns and Vandals.
The propaganda of Georgian fascists doesn’t stop in front of any fabrication so as to defile “wild” Ossets. On 7 March 1991 on the Belgian and Dutch television there was televised in news the information according to which the conflict in South Ossetia had begun on the basis of a religious conflict. Allegedly Ossets professed Islam (!!!) and spoke Turkish (!!!). That “information” was obviously thrown up from Georgia and allowed to be broadcast with the benediction of the Belgian Ambassador.
In their zoological anger Georgian chauvinists rise to such absurd confirmations that I feel ashamed of them. It turns out that no South Ossetia exists. If South Ossetia is mentioned it is usually mentioned in inverted commas and with the epithet “so-called”. It turns out that Georgian people have never heard of South Ossetia, they know this district only under the name “Shida Kartli” and “Samachablo”. It is difficult to say for whom is figured this lie. Probably for absolutely innocent “guerillas”. It is shameful to polemize on this level.
In Georgian and “Russian” press of the XIX century the name “Samhret Oseti”, “South Ossetia” may be seen hundreds of times (see “Sovetskaja Ossetia”, 8 March, 1991). If there were no South Ossetia the name “North Ossetia” – “Chrilo Oseti” would have lost any sense. In the widely popular book of Jacob Gogebashvili “Bunebis Kari” the first edition of which was released in 1912 and according to which millions of Georgian pupils learned geography and natural history among the regions of Georgia is also named South Ossetia “Samhret Oseti”. We take the authoritative eight-volume “Explanatory dictionary of the Georgian language” under the edition of A.S. Thcikobava. In the 6th volume, p. 738 we find “Samhret Oseti”. The Academician Tchikobava compiled the dictionary not for politic manipulations but as a strict lexicographical guide-book. And he was interested in one thing – if this or that word presents in the language. And he included into the dictionary only that words which existed. It turned out that “Samhret Oseti” existed in the Georgian language. If he thought that “Samhret Oseti” had a synonym in “Samachablo” he would have given a reference to this term. But there is no reference. Moreover, there is no “Samachablo” in the whole 8-volume dictionary. Where did this term appeare from? It is extracted by the fascist pseudo-science from the dust-heap of feudal times, when feudal estate was called on the surname of landlords (“Samachablo” – from the surname of Machabeli). But feudalism ruled all over Georgia. Then why for other regions feudal names are not raised from the dead, e.g. “Saeristavo”, “Satseretelo” etc.? They are called according to the tribes which live there: Kahetia, Hevsurtia, Svanetia, Imeretia etc, and only Ossetia is called not according to its population but according to the surname of the former landlord “Samachablo”. It is clear for what. To exterminate them “toponymically” with the aim to exterminate them physically. Gamsahurdia threatens to “bring a two-thousand army so as no Osset is left on the land of “Samachablo” (“Komsomolskaja Pravda”, 31 January, 1991). Well, if new Georgia intends to build its relations with national minorities on the principles “to offend”, “to exterminate”, then the International community and social opinion of all countries will give proper evaluation.
A few more words about the toponym “Shida Kartli” which is allegedly also a name of South Ossetia. The term “Shida Kartli” actually comes across many times in “Kartlis Tshovreba” (“Chronicle of Georgia”) and other sources. But it never was the name of South Ossetia. We read in the “Chronicle”: “Tsar Farnavaz… left here one military leader and gave him a district from Tbilisi and Aragva to Tasiskari, which is “Shida Kartli” (“Kartlis Tshovreba” under the edition of Kauhishvili, Tbilisi, 1942, pp. 17-18). Hence “Shida Kartli” (in literal sense “Interior Georgia ”) was not the name of “South Ossetia” but its “middle” Georgia from Aragva and Tbilisi to Surami pass, of the region which is now called Kartalinia. The confirmation that this term was ever used towards South Ossetia is false.
Coming back to the name “Samachablo” it is appropriate to say that names were different. There was for example the following name: Vilajeti Gurdjistan “Vilayet Georgia”. Georgia was called so when it was under Turkish sway. This sway was so firm and stable that Turks formed a special codex for this province: Kannunamei Gurdjistan “Book of laws of Georgian vilayet”.
And Georgia would have been a Turkish vilayet up to present if the great Christian power hadn’t given her hand in hard times and hadn’t saved her from enemy invasions forever.
If we include in the war of toponyms also “Vilayet Gurdjistan” we come to the agreement at last: Georgians will call South Ossetia “Samachablo” and Ossets will call Georgia in their turn “Gurdjistan”. As they say “we’ll be mutually polite”.
History – true and false
Fascism when it comes to power everywhere destroys humanitarian science, first of all historical one. A goal is put in front of the science very openly and cynically: not search and restoraton of historical truth, but non-stopping ethnic, national and racial self-glorification.
In the newspaper “Zarja Vostoka” from 26.05.1989 I came across an article of a Georgian historic L. Tuhashvili “So how old are we?” according to the confirmation of the author the Georgian state is 6 000 years old. The evidence. Excuse me: “The analysis of national ethno-psychology, heightened ambition, firm vanity, pride”. There are no other evidences. Thus the antiquity of national state system must be defined according to the level of national swagger. The more is the swagger the more antique is the state system. This is the scientific level of fascist Georgian historiography. I’ll remind that names of some backward tribes mean “real people” (see above). What pride! What ambition! Such tribes must be lavished at least 60 000 years.
Let’s move from “patriotic” fantasies of entire fabrication to real history. We’ll appeal to the best geographic atlases – German, French, English ones. What do we find in them? There is not a single hint at the Georgian reign till Common Era. Antique authors know in that region tribes of Iberians and Colchs. Nothing is known about the language of Iberians. Judging by the fact that Argonauts which had come from Greece communicated with the population of Colchis without translators was ancient Greek colony. In neighborhood with Iberians and Colchs is known a Scythian (Saxon) region, region of Saxaen. Strabon mentioned it first. The Georgian reign appears on the map since XIX century under the name Georgisch Reich, Royaume de Georgie, Kingdom.
Till X century if there existed any Georgian-speaking “reign”, it hadn’t had any political power and meaning even in the scale of the Caucuses. Moreover it fell prey either to Sasanid Iran, or Arabian caliphate, or Turks – Seldjucks. Only beginning from King David the Constructor (1073 – 1125) the Georgian reign state acquired stable political character and owing to Crusades it becomes famous in the West. “The Georgian chronicle” (“Kartlis Tshovreba”) in its beginning represents a mixture of fantasy with reality. There appear a lot of “kings”. But it is strange: none of them has a Georgian name. All the names are Iranian. A number of plots are borrowed from Shahname and other Iranian epic cycles.
All this is ascertained by Georgian historians, including an outstanding scientist Ivan Alexandrovich Djavahishvili.
Oh, Djavahishvili – Tuhashvili! What a shameful degradation!
According to the same historic atlas which I mentioned above in the Northern Caucasus since Ist century A.D., when there wasn’t even a hint at the Georgian reign, appeared a large Alan tribal unification, which was at first characterized with features of military democracy (in the vision of Engels), in course of time it formed a feudal state. In X century Alania adopted Christianity. It kept in touch with Byzantium, Khazaria, Russia, Georgia. These contacts very often were fixed with dynastic marriages. Relations with Georgia as it is clearly seen in the “Georgian chronicle” were especially close and lively. Joint campaigns against enemies are often mentioned (Vs. Miller, Osset etudes, Moscow, 1887, pp. 24). Part of Ossets (Alans) from the first centuries A.D. settled in the Transcaucasia and Georgian annalists differ Transcaucasian Ossets from North-Caucasian ones (Vs. Miller).
Georgian historians themselves settled Ossets on the territory of present South Ossetia by XIII century before they had gone mad form nationalism. At the beginning of 20-ies when I was a student of the Petrograd University I collected material about the origin of South-Ossetian surnames. Hundred-year-old people in respond to my question about the time of their settlement in South Ossetia invariably answered that their fathers, grandfathers, great grandfathers had lived in South Ossetia and hadn’t migrated from anywhere. They called their land Fydy Basta (native land), land of their fathers. Family names in North and South Ossetia are different. The most wide-spread are three surnames– Gagloevs, Tshovrebovs, Sanakoevs. Sanakoevs are absolutely South-Ossetian. They have no relatives in the North. The same may be said about the majority of others, less spread surnames. A number of surnames have Georgian endings: Togoshvili, Khabalashvili, Djugashvili (Stalin’s surname on his father is Osset) etc.
Dialectic differences between northern and southern dialects of the Ossetian language are serious and deep, especially in phonetics and vocabulary. There are hundreds of derivatives in the language of South Ossets from Georgian which are absolutely foreign for North Ossetian dialects. In order such distinctions have formed it requires many centuries.
In the light of all the stated the confirmation that Ossets appeared on the southern part of the spine only in XVII, XIX and even XX century has no scientific basis and is deliberately false, counted on people who are absolutely innocent in the issues of history of Ossetia and Georgia.
“It not only smells with fascism there but it stinks”, Rafael Alberti
It would be blasphemy to search for something positive in the events in South Ossetia in 1990-1991. But undoubtedly they gave one good lesson. In those events the Georgian ethnocratic clique disclosed itself as an organization of a fascist type. There is no attribute of fascist practice which would be absent in this “democracy”. Totalitarism is animal fear of any pluralism. Brutal suppression of police of every dissidence. Cruel censorship. Unification of all means of Mass Media. Puppet parliament: all decisions are taken unanimously like during Hitler and Stalin. The concept of “hosts” and “guests” with the hint at the perspective of eviction of all the “guests”. Unbridled racism: spreading of idea about racial superiority of Georgians over all other peoples. Home-bred messianizm. People of Hitler confirmed that everything outstanding in the history was conditioned with a mixture of German (Aryan) race. Georgian ethnocrats don’t want to stay aback. They also consider that every great people must have Georgian blood, you must just search. They have already stated that Peter the Great was a Georgian, or half-Georgian. Next are Julius Cesar, Alexander Macedonian and the Egyptian Pharaoh Heops... One must be surprised how similar are methods of political gangsters which imagined themselves supermen. Hitler invades Austria and states: there is no Austria, there is German land “Ostmark”. Saddam Hussein invades Kuwait and states: there is no Kuwait, there is the “19-th province of Iraq”. Gamsahurdia invades South Ossetia and states: there is no South Ossetia, there is Georgian land “Samachablo”. But you’ll not stand out on bare force. Austria again became Austria, Kuwait – Kuwait. South Ossetia will receive its status of South Ossetia again.
Fascist character of the ethnocratic regime in Georgia is not a secret for anybody any longer either here or abroad. By the way Uve Engelbrecht in the newspaper “General Anzeiger” writes: “Statements and actions of Gamsahurdia testify about rather strange attitude to human rights accepted in the international plan. The way Georgian authorities treat South Ossetian minority is a cautioning symptom”.
A rather influential in the USA newspaper writes: “Russian democrats and Western diplomats… are alarmed by the statements of Gamsahurdia against other nationalities; by his accent on special rights of ethnic Georgians, by his habit to call his opponents “criminals”, by his falling back from democracy and press… His positions are alike to fascism, his statement become more and more revolting”.
The newspaper “Mond” published the article of Tamaz Naskidashvili: “Gamsahurdia and his accomplices rule like absolute hosts. Approaching to fascism is clear: exaggerated nationalism, suffocating parties, search for “scapegoats”, a leader, presented as messenger of foresight and hero, whose cult becomes obligatory in course of time. Climbing down to mafia also takes place. The dirtiest “business” never was so close to the Government.
And as it usually happens both of these negative processes join into one. Fascism and mafia go hand in hand. It was observed in other places and in other times. In Georgia the Government is not shy of appealing to geeks of the society, using them as a means of maneuver and to the criminal world to do dirty work. It regards to South Ossetia first of all, where Gamsahurdia wages real war on extermination. In this activities Georgian militia is helped by another parallel one (it is called “informal”).
What a democracy may be if the Government violates human rights, when racial aggression is being practiced towards one of its national minorities? Thanks to Gamsahurdia Osset people are robbed, starved, beaten, kidnapped. Tortured and killed!
And if they don’t regain consciousness it would be the turn for Adjarians, Abkhazians. Meshets, Kurds, Greeks, Armenians… The turn of those who for many centuries have considered Georgia wonderful and generous… Zviad Gamsahurdia is a shady character. And one cannot help asking a question on whom he works…”
Tamaz Naskidashvili – former Chairman of the Georgian society in France, former Head of the Georgian orthodox church in Paris. Famous human rights advocate Valery Thcelidze in the article “Is it worthy to change prison for separate chambers?” (“Komsomolskaja Pravda”, 24 May, 1991) gives crushing critics of Gamsahurdia’s regime: “In a temporary blindness people chose a Nazi… It’ll be dirty episode in the history of Georgia. People overcome the invasion of Abbas, it’ll overcome Gamsahurdia either. It will, but it will dirty its conscience”.
The Deputy of the Congress of People’s Deputies Shanba twice called the regime of Gamsahurdia a fascist one and for both times presiding A. Lukjanov cut him off. In this way Kremlin guards “honor and dignity” of the regime which every day abuses it.
In Georgia sober voices may be heard. Mr. Ivanov-Smolensky in the newspaper “Izvestia” quotes one Georgian journalist: “The greatest tragedy today is that national idea in Georgia runs over all others – human rights, economic freedoms and, other valuable things”.
Mr. Gamsahurdia is not satisfied when he is called a fascist. “Why am I a fascist? Do I have gas chambers?” It turned out that fascism is gas chambers. If one doesn’t have it this is democracy. Saddam Hussein is democracy, African emperor Bocassa is democracy…
Nationalistic nervousness in some regions of the Soviet Union is an irrigative appearance, thus it must be considered upon like anachronism. The time of fascist regimes is gone in the whole civilized society. These regimes were wrecked in Italy, Germany, Portugal, Greece, Chile, Argentina, Paraguay and now there is a distinct regularity: the more cultural a country is, the more trifling fascist parties are. Their cannibal activities and practice cause hate by any decent people. In the whole world there appear a lot of small, but militant Hitlers. They long for power. But the time is different and they manage to seize power only there where the level of political culture is on zero: in some African and Arabian countries, in Georgia. In leading countries they drag out a miserable existence. They hardly manage to push into the Parliament a few deputies.
I’d like to believe that Georgian people will soon get free from the nationalistic intoxication, their hour of penance and brightening up will come and they will recall about the regime of Gamsahurdia with the same hate like Paraguayans about the regime of Stressner.
If it doesn’t happen I can say just one thing: Georgian nation which I know, among which I grew up, which I treat with great respect and love, people of the great humanist Rustaveli deserve better fate.
The international community became more carefully look at the events happening in South Ossetia. In the sight of the whole humanity an awful genocide against small people is being committed. Conscience of nations cannot make up with it. On the XVIIIth Congress of UNO for struggle with criminality it was recognized that fight against genocide must be looked upon as a particular case of fight with criminality. Full information must be sent to the International Committee of Red Cross, to Amnesty International, to the Organization of United Nations. It is necessary to convince the whole world in anti-humanitarian essence of that regime which confirmed in Georgia.
Reconciliation is still possible
Many of those who were direct witnesses of the events in South Ossetia express doubt in the possibility of reconciliation. They say that too much enmity and anger accumulated by both sides. I think they are mistaken. I believed and continue to believe that every man and every nation has the energy of good and evil. And when at some periods energy of evil gains one must not despair and consider that it is for centuries. Energy of good will find its way and then former enemies will reach their hands and say: “We are before all people, and then Georgian and Ossets”.
Enmity between people is kindled not by people itself but by politicians, which manipulate by people. Hence the very first aim is to become from the influence of their politicians.
All emergent issues of territorial, administrative, economic, cultural order must be solved on the round table in the spirit of mutual benevolence and understanding. Moscow, 20 May, 1991